Battery Energy Storage

FIRE SUPPRESSION FOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS AND BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

Battery Fire Suppression

Aero-K® condensed aerosol fire suppression is a line protection solution for energy storage systems (ESS) and battery energy storage systems (BESS) applications. This includes in-building, containerized, and in-cabinet applications. Aero-K® systems provide highly effective battery room fire protection.

WHAT IS A LITHIUM BATTERY?

A lithium-ion battery or li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

THE RISK

The deep-seated nature of battery fires creates challenges relative to extinguishing for every extinguisher type.

Due to out-gassing before and during battery ignition, re-flash remains a possible hazard.
Unlike gas systems operating under high pressure that seek exit from the hazard area,
Aero-K® aerosol functions at low pressure and stays within the environment to deliver continual storage battery fire protection.

Gas systems will exit the hazard area through any openings. The Aero-K® aerosol keeps its buoyancy and enables openings which are not closable as opposed to the rapid exit of gas in high pressure gas systems.

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY

Aero-K® state-of-the-art fire suppression technology delivers the most compact, lightest, and highly economical fire quenching solution. Our stainless steel, hermetically sealed, and exceptionally rugged canister – the Aero-K® generator – contains a solid and stable compound. When a fire occurs, these Aero-K® canisters automatically dispense propellant inert gases and ultra-fine particles which effectively put out fires utilizing smaller quantity of agent in terms of mass than any other type of standard fire extinguishing system.

APPLICATIONS AND OTHER UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

Battery Fire Protection

Aero-K® fixed systems are utilized in various applications in a number of different industries including energy supply and energy storage. The potential hazard posed by lithium-ion batteries is present in these industries, which can result in an exceptionally difficult fire to control and quench due to several issues:

For example:

  • An explosion risk is present due to exposure to short-circuits or heat in the batteries
  • Powerful reactions or toxicity may result from the remaining residues after combustion
  • Lithium batteries burn in an uncommon manner compared to other batteries
  • Increasing combustion gases ignite items in storage at higher levels
  • A high potential of ignition is related to the released electrolyte as a result of heat exposure
  • Fire penetration to the underside of the ceiling may occur within only minutes
  • Beyond the operational disruption involved, a fire often causes environmental damage and results in a complete write-off
  • There is limited access available for firefighting as a result of the density and height of stored items
  • Soot and smoke contaminate other items in storage nearby

Some of the benefits of the Aero-K® fixed systems involving storage battery fire protection include:

  • Keeps good availability and delivery capability with no interruptions
  • Prevents the dynamic propagation of fires as a result of ignition with neighboring, closely packed batteries
  • No damage to the systems and goods by soot, fire, or the water applied to quench the fire
  • Provides continual and permanent fire safety without any restrictions on building use, staff movements, or altering the warehouse equipment, goods, and flow of goods

TEST RESULTS

The Aero-K® aerosol extinguishing product was tested for efficacy in putting out Li-ion battery fires. It was found that the Aero-K® agent successfully extinguished single and double cell battery fires. This testing was conducted in parallel with a large battery fire testing program. Fireaway Inc. contracted with DNV GL for testing to have its Aero-K® product line included in the program.

The following conclusions can be made from testing of Aero-K® aerosol fire suppression system.

  • Aero-K® can put out a Li-ion battery fire.
  • Residual Aero-K® aerosol in the hazard will prevent a re-flash of the fire.
  • Aero-K® can reduce oxygen in an enclosed environment during a battery fire. Our DNV-GL FA test for O2 levels that shows 18% and no drop.
  • Due to the deep-seated nature of a stacked battery fire, the Aero-K® extinguisher removed heat from the interior of the cells more slowly than the exterior.
  • The residence time of gases and aerosols during Aero-K® deployment is a function of when the atmosphere is ventilated.

BENEFITS OF Aero-K® AEROSOL SYSTEMS FOR MITIGATING HAZARDS INVOLVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

  • No need for an airtight hazard area. And closable openings are permitted based on the calculations.
  • Residual Aero-K® present after discharge in hazard areas prevents re-flashes which are common with lithium-ion battery fires, enhancing battery room fire protection.
  • Aero-K® systems do not take up important floor space within the hazard since they are bracket mounted on the walls or ceiling within the hazard.
  • No piping or manifold is required, decreasing material and installation labor costs
  • Hydrostatic testing and cylinder weighing are not required.
  • Possesses a 10-year operational service life
Battery Room Protection